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The earliest date generally accepted by scholars is about 450 BCE.Initially, the coins were all silver--from distant mines in Spain and possibly Sardinia--with weights based on variations of the Babylonian shekel of 7.2 grams Built on a rocky offshore islet and surrounded by strong walls, Tyre (today the Lebanese city of Sur) was connected to the mainland in 332 BCE when Alexander the Great built a causeway almost a kilometer long in order to storm and sack the city.Even as the successor kings initialed coinages in their own names and with their own types the "Alexanders" lived on for two centuries during which time they were issued by independent cities as an international coinage. Their very number, however, and the large array of monograms and symbols used to identify the mints where the coins were struck and the mint officials who supervised the work, make this one of the most challenging series for the numismatist. He always remained a private scholar, laboring in his work rooms at the American Numismatic Society in New York where his collection of Greek coins today forms the backbone of the Society's world-famous collection. Hill was referring in the quote above, was a Danish scholar whose work of 1855, Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand, suivie d'un appendice contenant les monnaies de Philippe II et III, was the first comprehensive study of the coinage.A Sir George Hill wrote in 1909: There are few series which present more difficulties in the way of chronological classification than the 'Alexanders.' The mass of material is so vast and the differences between the varieties so minute, so uninteresting to anyone but the numismatic specialist, and so difficult to express in print, that very little progress has been made since the publication of L. After his premature death in 1941, his obituary in the American Journal of Archaeology characterized him as "America's greatest numismatist." To understand the revolution in our knowledge of the coins of Alexander's lifetime and the posthumous Alexander's that began with Newell's Reattribution of Certain Tetradrachms of Alexander the Great of 1911 (3), one must go back to the mid nineteenth century. Müller was able to distinguish between the early and later coins of Alexander by examining the size of the flans, which no scholar had previously done.Each city-state was a politically independent unit, and it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality.In terms of archaeology, language, lifestyle, and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other residents of the Levant. Beekes has suggested a pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym..These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria ...
meaning either "land of palm trees" or "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization, that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.A SEMITIC PEOPLE, THE PHOENICIANS developed remarkable proficiency in shipbuilding, seafaring and trade, as the prophet Ezekiel (lived c.622 – 570 BCE) observed, which their Greek neighbors and trading partners adopted and transmitted to us.Alexander's coins, the most familiar being the silver issues bearing a head of Herakles on one face and a seated Zeus with the king's name on the other, were struck throughout the empire.(1) Such coins were not only minted during Alexander's lifetime but their issue was continued in the two decades following his death by the Macedonian generals who divided the empire between them and created the Hellenistic kingdoms. (2) But at that moment the study of the Alexander coinage was about to be revolutionized by a young American collector and scholar, Edward T. Newell graduated from Yale in 1907 and took an MA two years later.
Around 1050 BC, a Phoenician alphabet was used for the writing of Phoenician. It is difficult to ascertain which meaning came first, but it is understandable how Greeks may have associated the crimson or purple color of dates and dye with the merchants who traded both products. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani.